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securite_usa [2014/06/23 22:23] (Version actuelle)
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 +====== Sécurite, criminalité... ======
  
 +===== USA : =====
 + 
 +==== USA Congress : PREVENTING CRIME: WHAT WORKS, WHAT DOESN'​T,​ WHAT'S PROMISING1 ====
 +\\ Lighting campaigns seek to enhance the ability of people to provide protection for each other.
 +In 1979, the predecessor agency of NIJ, the National Institute of Law Enforcement and
 +Criminal Justice, reported on a review of 60 lighting evaluations. The authors of this review
 +concluded:
 +« Is street lighting an effective approach in the reduction and deterrence of crime? The answer
 +is inconclusive. The paucity of reliable and uniform data and the inadequacy of available
 +evaluation studies preclude a definitive statement regarding the relationship between street
 +lighting and crime. » (Tien, et. al. 1979, page 93, emphasis in the original)
 +Almost twenty years later, we know little more about the effectiveness of lighting.
 +In the 1980'​s,​ a borough in London upgraded all of its street lighting. Atkins, Husain and
 +Storey (1991) compared reported crimes the year before the relighting to the year following
 +for 39 sections of the borough. No control areas were used, so background trends in crime
 +cannot be assessed. No systematic changes in crime were detected. Surveys of residents of
 +one area found no changes in perceptions of security.
 +A Scottish study of relighting in a Glasgow neighborhood and a small town near Glasgow
 +found that there was a short term reduction in victimizations that varied from 32 percent to 68
 +percent, depending on how victimization was measured (respondent victimizations,​
 +victimization of respondents'​ children, victimization of other family members, victimization
 +of friends, or car victimization). Reported crime dropped 14 percent. The evaluators compared
 +a three-month period prior to relighting to a three-month period following (Ditton and Nair
 +1994). No control group was used and the results for the two neighborhoods were combined.
 +Finally, we need to consider three separate evaluations,​ with similar designs, undertaken by
 +Painter (1994). She examined lighting improvements on two separate street segments and a
 +footpath, all located in « crime prone » areas within London. Pedestrians were interviewed
 +before and after the lighting improvement. All interviews were conducted after dark and were
 +completed within 6 weeks of the relighting. No interviews were conducted in control areas.
 +Substantial reductions in robberies, auto crimes, and threats were reported in two sites (86
 +percent, 79 percent). These crimes were eliminated in the third site, but the number of crimes
 +before relighting was small so this could have been the result of other factors.
 +\\ {{:​pollution_lumineuse:​uk_-_preventing_crime_what_works_-_4pg.pdf|}}
 +
 +==== USA Congress : USA BURGLARIES BY NIGHT AND DAY ====
 +\\ Percent distribution of burglaries known to police in USA, by place and time of
 +occurrence. ‘Res’ is residence (dwelling) and ‘NonRes’ is store, office etc. For residential
 +burglaries, the time is unknown for between 16% and 19% of all reported burglaries in
 +individual years, and for non-residential,​ 9% to 11%. Data are from Maguire and Pastore
 +(2002, Table 3.163). Note that the total number of burglaries in the USA has fallen over the
 +years shown.
 +\\ {{:​pollution_lumineuse:​usa_-_burglaries_by_night_and_day_-_1pg.pdf|}}
 +
 +==== IDA : Information Sheet #51 LIGHTING AND CRIME ====
 +\\ Does outdoor nighttime lighting prevent crime?
 +The answer is nobody knows. There have been
 +studies in the United States and in Europe examining
 +this issue, and they have come to no definite
 +conclusions that can be applied to society as a
 +whole. Some studies suggest that lighting a particular
 +neighborhood or park reduces the local crime
 +rate. These types of studies often suffer from poor
 +controls, poor scientific methodology,​ and failure to
 +include ling term follow-up. Other studies show no
 +significant change in crime rates after the installation
 +of lighting. If it were so easy to reduce crime
 +with lighting, then we should have made considerable
 +headway by now. Our cities have never been
 +brighter, yet the crime rate is higher than ever. The
 +connection between crime reduction and increased
 +lighting is vague at best
 +\\ {{:​pollution_lumineuse:​usa_-_ida_-_lighting_and_crime_-_1pg.pdf|}}
 +
 +==== SELENE : Outdoor Lighting and Crime: Is There a Connection? ====
 +\\ Many people who have not had occasion to investigate the matter tend to assume that
 +where crime is a concern, “the more light, the better”! But the research that has been done to date has
 +provided no reliable evidence that this so.
 +A 1977 U.S. Department of Justice analysis of 60 street lighting projects found that
 +“there is no statistically significant evidence that street lighting impacts the level of crime, especially if
 +crime displacement is taken into account.” An even more comprehensive Justice Department report in
 +1997 stated, “We may speculate that lighting is effective in some places, ineffective in others, and
 +counter productive in still other circumstances....Lighting has received considerable attention. Yet,
 +evaluation designs are weak and the results are mixed. We can have very little confidence that
 +improved lighting prevents crime....In the absence of better theories about when and where lighting can
 +be effective, and rigorous evaluations of plausible lighting interventions,​ we cannot make any scientific
 +assertions regarding the effectiveness of lighting. In short, the effectiveness of lighting is unknown.”
 +\\ {{:​pollution_lumineuse:​usa_-_selene_-_lighting_and_crime_-_1pg.pdf|}}
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securite_usa.txt · Dernière modification: 2014/06/23 22:23 par admin