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Sécurite, criminalité...

Belgique :

ASCEN_Brochure_EP_et_criminalite_2014.01.23_4pg


Quand on parle de pollution lumineuse, il existe un large consensus pour admettre qu’il existe de nombreux problèmes au niveau de la perte de vision du ciel nocturne, des impacts sur l’environnement ou du gaspillage énergétique engendré par les mauvais éclairages. Cependant des objections existent : beaucoup de personnes pensent que les éclairages apportent un plus au niveau de la lutte contre la criminalité. Mais qu’en est-il réellement ? Sur-éclairer estil un moyen dissuasif et efficace pour se protéger ou protéger ses biens. L’éclairage nocturne apporte-t-il une véritable sécurité ou ne s’agit-il que d’un « sentiment de sécurité » ? Nous allons voir que les lumières nocturnes renforcent cette impression, ce sentiment de sécurité, mais vont rarement au-delà.
ascen_brochure_ep_et_criminalite_2014.01.23_4pg.pdf

MONITEUR DE SECURITE 2004 - Analyse de l’enquête fédérale


Le présent rapport a pour objet de restituer les principaux résultats de l’enquête fédérale de population Moniteur de sécurité réalisée au cours du dernier semestre de l’année 2004. Le Moniteur de Sécurité est une enquête réalisée auprès de la population à la demande du Ministre de l’Intérieur. Cette enquête a été lancée et suivie par la Direction de la Banque de données nationale au sein de la Direction Générale de l’Appui Opérationnel de la Police fédérale. Il s’agit de la cinquième passation de l’enquête au niveau fédéral. Dès lors, les résultats sont dans l’ensemble comparables dans le temps. Néanmoins, certains résultats ne le sont pas, suite à des modifications apportées aux questionnaires d’enquête 2000 et 2002 (cf. Manuel d’instruction). Le Moniteur de sécurité a également été réalisé au niveau local (dans des communes/zones de police). En 2004, un moniteur local a été organisé plus particulièrement dans les entités suivantes : 73 communes à contrat de sécurité et de prévention et, lorsque la commune fait partie d’une zone de police pluricommunale, quelques enquêtes supplémentaires, proportionnelles à la population, ont été organisées dans les autres entités de cette zone. D’autres communes ou zones de police qui souhaitaient bénéficier d'une enquête locale du Moniteur de sécurité ont rejoint l'initiative moyennant financement sur fonds propres, au travers d’une adhésion locale.
be_-_moniteur_securite_belgique_2004_-_44pg.pdf

Police fédérale : PLUS DE CAMBRIOLAGES L’APRÈS-MIDI QUE LA NUIT


BRUXELLES, 17/11/2006. – La Police Fédérale a constaté en 2005 quelques changements par rapport au phénomène des cambriolages. Une analyse menée sur le moment où sont commis les cambriolages établit que les mois d’hiver, comme toujours, sont les plus sensibles. En revanche, les voleurs semblent plus actifs l’après-midi et en soirée. En 2003, la plupart des cambriolages ont été commis entre 3 et 5 heures du matin. De l’analyse la plus récente relative aux cambriolages, il paraît dans tous les cas que l’approche policière des trois dernières années a eu de l’effet. Mais pas question de s’endormir sur ses lauriers : les services de police veulent, en collaboration avec les autorités administratives et judiciaires, continuer à améliorer et affiner les procédures existantes. Par exemple : sur base de l’analyse mentionnée ci-dessus, il sera demandé aux directeurs-coordinateur de la police administrative, en concertation avec la Police Locale, de réorienter les Full Integrated Police Actions (FIPA). Les FIPA étaient jusqu’à présent essentiellement organisées la nuit. D’après une analyse conduite sur les bandes itinérantes, qui sont responsables d’une grande partie des cambriolages, il apparaît que ces bandes sont constituées, contrairement à avant, d’un petit nombre de personnes. Les groupes d’auteurs comptent 2 à 3 membres qui sont déjà arrêtés après avoir commis quelques faits. Auparavant, les bandes comptaient 20 à 30 membres et commettaient 150 à 200 faits avant d’être interpellés
be_-_police_federale_-_cambriolages_apres-midi_17.11.06_-_2pg.pdf

Police fédérale : Vols dans les habitations : chiffres 2006 et conseils


BRUXELLES, 26/10/2007. – En 2006, 57.246 cambriolages ont été enregistrés en Belgique . C’est 13% de plus par rapport à 2005 (50.334). Ces cambriolages sont essentiellement commis durant les mois d’hiver et dans l’après-midi. Dans les grandes villes, ce sont les appartements qui sont de plus en plus visés. Les autorités et les services de police jouent un rôle important, avec les partenaires pertinents public-privé, au niveau de la prévention du cambriolage. Pour améliorer la lutte contre ce phénomène, la coopération de la population est aussi indispensable. Les mois d’hiver étant les mois de l’année où le nombre de vols avec effraction est le plus important, le passage à l’heure d’hiver ce week-end est l’occasion de présenter quelques chiffres et, surtout, de rappeler quelques conseils de prévention.
be_-_police_federale_-_vols_dans_les_habitations_-_chiffres_2006_-_5pg.pdf

StopVol : Infos : Statistiques criminalité 2000, 2001 et 2002 en Belgique


Statistiques 2000-2005 sur les vols complets et tentatives.
be_-_stopvol.be_stat_criminalite_2000-2002_belgique_-_2pg.pdf

Winterthur : CAMBRIOLAGES – LES CHIFFRES WINTERTHUR 2006


50% des cambriolages peuvent être facilement évités La majorité des cambriolages se produisent pendant la journée, par la porte d'entrée Bruxelles, 27 juin 2006 – Une étude réalisée par la compagnie d'assurances Winterthur révèle que la moitié des cambriolages pourraient être facilement évités. La plupart des gens pensent qu'une telle mésaventure ne leur arrivera jamais et, en conséquence, ne s'informent pas suffisamment et ne prennent aucune mesure de prévention. Ils ont manifestement tort, car on recense en Belgique un cambriolage toutes les neuf minutes. Winterthur a calculé que les trois quarts des bâtiments (privés et professionnels) présentent des lacunes qui favorisent l'effraction ou le cambriolage. A l'approche de l'été, de nombreux Belges se préparent à partir en vacances et à laisser leur habitation pour quelques jours ou quelques semaines. Pour leur éviter les mauvaises surprises au retour des vacances, Winterthur vient de publier un dépliant contenant quantité de conseils pratiques ainsi que des checklists de moyens de protection à vérifier.
be_-_winterthur_communique_de_presse_cambriolages_2006.06.27_-_2pg.pdf

Canada :

Erudit : L’analyse stratégique et quelques développements récents en criminologie


Strategic analysis views crime as a confrontation and as a mean to an end. It is characterised by : 1) it concentrates on crime; 2) it takes cognizance of the circumstances under which the crime is committed; 3) it presents the crime as a decision influenced by its anticipated results. Felson's routine activity approach, which is similar to strategic analysis, is presented in this article. Other recent developments in criminology have made it possible to present several assertions with a view to explaining certain aspects of theft, in particular, the choice of target. These assertions are : 1) thefts vary according to the opportunities offered potential thieves; 2) opportunity is defined as the contact between a potential criminal and a suitable target; 3) the number of contacts between potential criminals and suitable targets varies directly with the number of targets and their accessibility; 4) the suitability of targets varies in direct proportion to their value and vulnerability. It varies in inverse proportion to their inertia. INTRODUCTION Dans son sens restreint, la stratégie désigne la conduite des opérations militaires; dans son sens général, elle est l'«art de coordonner des actions et de manoeuvrer pour atteindre un but» (Larousse). L'analyse stratégique en criminologie emprunte à ces deux sens. L'idée de conflit y est : le délit est vu comme l'élément central d'un affrontement entre le délinquant et sa victime; entre le délinquant et les forces de l'ordre. Plus important encore, elle évoque aussi l'idée d'une action en vue d'une fin : le crime apparaît comme un moyen utilisé par le délinquant pour réaliser ses fins. Si on est fondé de considérer le délit comme un moyen en vue d'une fin, les caractéristiques de la cible visée par le délinquant devraient l'influencer. C'est effectivement ce que tendent à démontrer une série de travaux récents en criminologie.
can_-_maurixe_cusson_-_criminologie_-_21pg.pdf

==== CIPC La gestion des espaces urbains : éléments clés pour une approche intégrée de la sécurité des collectivités ====
La sécurisation des espaces publics, à des fins de réduction de la peur du crime, constitue une priorité croissante pour plusieurs métropoles dans le monde. Si ces espaces servent aux activités commerciales, culturelles et sociales, ils peuvent également être le lieu d’activités criminelles et délinquantes. Qu’ils soient réels ou imaginaires, les problèmes liés à la sécurité sont susceptibles d’accroître les craintes des utilisateurs des espaces publics, entraînant ainsi des coûts économiques, humains et sociaux. Cette étude est fondée sur une définition générale des espaces publics, laquelle englobe divers lieux comme les rues, parcs, jardins et promenades du domaine public et dont l’accès est ouvert. Elle inclut également les lieux publics dont l’accès est soumis à certaines conditions comme par exemple les plages et les terrains de sport. La définition s’étend aussi aux espaces publics ou privés : centres d’achat, stations de métro et espaces extérieurs tels que les logements sociaux dont le terrain est accessible au public et les espaces extérieurs privés dont l’accès est réservé aux membres (terrains de golf et aires de loisirs notamment) (White, 1996, p.46). Chaque type d’espace attire certaines formes de criminalité et de comportement antisocial. Par exemple, le transport en public peut être un lieu propice aux pickpockets, au trafic de drogue, aux vols et aux voies de fait. Les espaces entre les immeubles donnent parfois lieu à des actes de vandalisme ou de nuisance.
cipc_-_gestion_espaces_urbains_-_57pg.pdf

CIPC La prévention des cambriolages résidentiels : Rapport Final


La prévention des cambriolages résidentiels : quelques enseignements tirés d’une approche comparée. Synthèse Si de multiples actions de prévention des cambriolages dans les résidences ont été entreprises dans de nombreux pays et villes à travers le monde, seul un petit nombre a fait l’objet d’études d’évaluation suffisamment précises pour en décrire la démarche et les résultats. C’est pourquoi cette étude a retenu un nombre restreint d’exemples de pratiques. Six projets locaux conduits au Royaume-Uni, en Australie, en Nouvelle-Zélande et au Québec (Canada) y sont examinés. Les politiques menées par d’autres pays, dont la Belgique, la Finlande ou la France ont également alimenté cette étude.
cipc_-_prevention_cambriolages_-_72pg.pdf

Luxembourg :

GRAND-DUCHE DE LUXEMBOURG - LE RAPPORT D’ACTIVITÉ 2004


Pour la Police Grand-Ducale, 2004 aura été marquée par l’installation des derniers éléments structurels de la réorganisation, en l’occurrence les Services de Police de la Route dans les circonscriptions régionales de Police de Capellen, Diekirch, Grevenmacher et Mersch. Un nombre restreint de nouveaux concepts (Police judiciaire et sécurité routière) ont pris leur essor en début d’année, dans le cadre de la lutte contre la délinquance et l’insécurité routière, composantes essentielles du sentiment d’insécurité subjectif. Les projets mis en place au cours des années précédentes, comme les concepts de police technique et de lutte contre la délinquance juvénile, sont en plein développement. En général, les affaires traitées par la Police sont en légère augmentation. La grande délinquance continue à se situer à un niveau très modeste. Il faut néanmoins constater que l’évolution quantitative défavorable de la délinquance, par rapport à 2003, est due en partie à des faits de violences contre les personnes et des affaires qu’on pourrait traiter de prostitution au sens large. L’intervention et l’enquête ont donné de bons résultats. Les taux d’élucidation se sont améliorés. Le nombre d’arrestations, suivies d’un transfert vers le Centre Pénitentiaire, a encore augmenté. Force est malheureusement de constater que, lors des interpellations, les policiers sont de plus en plus confrontés à des personnes violentes. L’année 2004 a également été marquée par la mise en place du « Concept de Police Judiciaire » en collaboration avec les autorités judiciaires. Dans ce domaine, la lutte internationale contre le terrorisme et le phénomène du trafic organisé de stupéfiants, impliquant des ressortissants africains, demandeurs d’asile, ont connu un intérêt tout particulier. Pour ce qu’il en est du volet de la police de proximité, les structures posées par le législateur en 1999 ont été poursuivies systématiquement. La Circonscription Régionale de Police de Capellen dispose désormais d’un plan régional de sécurité contre les cambriolages et la Ville d’Esch-Alzette a présenté son plan local de sécurité. Finalement, 2004 aura été en grande partie une année de préparation à la Présidence de l’Union Européenne de 2005. De nombreuses séances de sensibilisation et de formation ont été dispensées au personnel et tandis que l’élan du recrutement régulier a suivi son cours prévu, un effort extraordinaire d’acquisition de matériel et de charroi a été entrepris par le Gouvernement, de façon à ce que la Police Grand-Ducale soit prête à relever le défi européen au 1er janvier 2005.
gd_luxembourg_-_rapport_d_activite_2004_-_58pg.pdf

United Kingdom :

Crime Prevention Unit : THE INFLUENCE OF STREET LIGHTING ON CRIME AND FEAR OF CRIME


This report, on street lighting, crime and fear, breaks fresh ground. Earlier work has been limited to short-term investigations of small areas, or even individual blackspots. The research presented here, which was carried out in the London Borough of Wandsworth, deals with the criminological impact of some 3,500 brighter street lights. The timeframe for ‘before’ and ‘after’ comparison was a full twelve months in each case, while the total database comprised over 100,000 crimes reported to the police. The team from the University of Southampton who carried out this research concluded that, as deployed on a broad scale, better street lighting has had little or no effect on crime. In their words, “the dominant overall conclusion … was of no significant change” On the other hand, they did find that the improved street lighting was warmly welcomed by the public, and that it provided a measure of reassurance to some people - particularly women – who were fearful in their use of public space. This report is perhaps slightly more technical than is usual in this series of Crime Prevention Unit Papers. To complement it, a readily accessible overview both of this and other relevant work has been prepared. That assessment, The Effect of Better Street Lighting on Crime and Fear: a Review, is being published at the same time as this report, as Crime Prevention Unit Paper 29.
uk_-_atkins-husain-storey_influence_on_crime_-_67pg.pdf

BAA : Safety at night


We accept the evidence that lit roads are, generally, safer than unlit ones.23 We do not want a reduction in the length of lit roads but we do advocate the replacement of wasteful, light polluting old street and road lights with Full Cut Off lighting (see page 11). The overall length of motorway and A roads that are lit in the open countryside should not continue to grow. We recognise that there may be a few stretches of such road where a strong safety case can be made for an extension of lighting, but we argue that solar-powered LED cats’ eyes be considered as an alternative
uk_-_baa_-_safety_at_night_-_1pg.pdf

ASV : FEAR OF CRIME


The literature on fear of crime is extensive (Semmens 1999 [99]), although much of it is not about lighting. Other bibliographies (eg Nottingham 2001 [75]) provide additional material. Sherman et al. (1997) [102] has a critical review, including the use of lighting to allay fear. The widely accepted position is that people tend to fear crime more when they are in dark or dimly lit places, especially if there are no others or a small number of strangers about. In given circumstances, fear of crime is almost universally reported as being greater at night than it is by day, regardless of what the risks of actual crime are. Females are generally reported as being more fearful of crime than males. Survey data (eg Maguire and Pastore 2002, Table 2.4.1 [64]) tend to support these statements. It therefore reasonable to use artificial lighting to reduce fear of crime provided that this does not materially increase the risk of actual crime or cause some other adverse effect such as affecting driver vision or threatening biodiversity.
uk_-_clark_-_fear_of_crime_-_3pg_.pdf

ASV : OUTDOOR LIGHTING AND CRIME, PART 1: LITTLE OR NO BENEFIT


Scientific studies support common experience that light tends to allay the fear of crime at night. It is widely believed that outdoor lighting also helps prevent actual crime at night, but experiments have given equivocal results. Thorough scientific reviews published in 1977 and 1997 concluded that the effects were unknown. Recent work in the UK suggests that lighting does have a crime reducing effect by day as well as at night. This work appears to be flawed in ways that favour a crime-reducing result. While it seems reasonable to expect that social effects of outdoor lighting at night might have some influence on daytime crime, so far there appears to be no reliable evidence for any net crime-preventing effect, day or night. It even appears possible that lighting might increase crime, a topic investigated in Part 2 of this work. CCTV competes with outdoor lighting for crime-prevention funding. The available evidence indicates that CCTV is not an effective alternative. Until the lighting and crime issue is better understood, no more security lighting or other lighting for crime-prevention should be installed and the funding should be redirected to rectification of existing overbright and glary outdoor lighting.
uk_-_clark_-_outdoor_lighting_and_crime_-_1_-_64pg.pdf

ASV : OUTDOOR LIGHTING AND CRIME, PART 2: COUPLED GROWTH


Experimental evidence about the relationship between outdoor lighting and crime was examined in Part 1 of this work. Although the presence of light tends to allay the fear of crime at night, the balance of evidence from relatively short-term field studies is that increased lighting is ineffective for preventing or deterring actual crime. In this second part, available evidence indicates that darkness inhibits crime, and that crime is more encouraged than deterred by outdoor lighting. A new hypothesis is developed accordingly. Additional quantitative evidence supports the hypothesis. Excessive outdoor lighting appears to facilitate some of the social factors that lead to crime. The proliferation of artificial outdoor lighting has been fostered with little regard for the environmental consequences of wasteful practice. Widely observed exponential increases in artificial skyglow indicate that the growth of outdoor lighting is unsustainable. The natural spectacle of the night sky has already been obliterated for much of the population of the developed world. Copious artificial light has transformed civilisation, but increasing knowledge of its adverse environmental, biological and cultural effects now justifies large overall reductions in outdoor ambient light at night as well as in its waste component. ‘Good’ lighting has to be redefined. Moderation of outdoor ambient light levels may reduce crime in due course, as well as limiting the adverse environmental effects. Lighting controls might provide a means of limiting urbanisation and urban sprawl. National crime prevention policies, laws, lighting standards, architectural use of light and urban planning practice appear in need of fundamental changes.
uk_-_clark_-_outdoor_lighting_and_crime_-_2_-_118pg.pdf

ASV : OVERVIEW OF LIGHT AND CRIME STUDIES


There is too much literature on the subject for a complete survey here, and reliance has been placed on some existing reviews. Present views on the subject are polarised. Particular studies have been selected for mention to indicate why, and to facilitate resolution. Nearly all of the available material is from the USA and the UK. Useful formal studies have presumably been done in other countries but few indications of this were found in Internet searches or scans of reference lists in papers cited in this work. A more thorough search of the literature including eight large bibliographic databases by Farrington and Welsh (2002a,b) [34,35] produced a more extensive collection, but again mostly of UK and USA origin. A standard convention is followed in this document. If an increase in light is accompanied by an increase in crime, a positive correlation, it is called a positive association or effect, naturally. This possibility is not often mentioned in the crime prevention literature but if it is, it tends to be called a negative effect. To follow that usage here would be to perpetuate confusion. Increased crime accompanying increased light is therefore a positive association. A decrease in light accompanied by a decrease in crime is a positive association also. Increased light and decreased crime is a negative or inverse association, and so is decreased light and increased crime. Useful or beneficial effects are unambiguous - they mean a reduction of crime in any circumstances.
uk_-_clark_-_overview_of_light_and_crime_studies_-_8pg.pdf

ASV : EXISTING KNOWLEDGE OF LIGHTING EFFECTS ON CRIME


Common experience, confirmed by experiments, is that artificial light at night tends to allay the fear of crime. Any deterrent effect on actual crime is difficult to investigate with field studies, partly because of pervasive extraneous influences. Crime-reducing, nil, uncertain, and crime-increasing effects of light at night have variously been reported for night or day or both, separately or combined or both. Thorough scientific reviews published in 1977 and 1997 in the USA concluded that the effect of lighting on actual crime was unknown. Nevertheless, crime prevention practitioners there and elsewhere, and even some academics, have asserted for decades that lighting is an important weapon, or even the most important weapon, in the fight against crime. UK work published since 1997 has increased academic acceptance that crime prevention effects of lighting do apply in some circumstances, although this UK work has been criticised by others for its procedural and analytical shortcomings
uk-usa_-_clark_-_conclusions_effects_on_crime_-_3pg.pdf

Home Office Research : Effects of improved street lighting on crime: a systematic review


This review summarises the findings of previous studies from both the USA and Britain on the effectiveness of improved street lighting on crime. Rigorous criteria were set for the inclusion of studies. These criteria were: that improvements in street lighting were the main intervention studied; that there was an outcome measure of crime; that crime levels before and after the intervention were measured; and that the studies included a comparable control area. A meta-analysis of the eligible studies found that improved street lighting led to significant reductions in crime and with an overall reduction in recorded crime of 20 per cent across all the experimental areas. The review assesses why street lighting has this impact on crime. The authors conclude that lighting increases community pride and confidence and strengthens informal social control and that this explains the recorded impacts, rather than increased surveillance or deterrent effects. The authors, however, suggest that these explanatory theories need to be tested more explicitly in future research and that there need to be further assessments of the impacts of different levels of illumination on crime. The authors conclude that improvements in street lighting offer a cost-effective crime reduction measure and should be considered an important element in situational crime reduction programmes.
uk_-_farrington-welsh_-_effects_of_street_lighting_on_crime_-_aout_2002_-_61pg.pdf

ILE : Domestic Security Lighting, Friend or Foe


Since the first cave dweller discovered fire, mankind has used light as a defence against animals and other predators. It is now simple and cheap to provide and operate outdoor lighting, which would have amazed our ancestors by the amount of light produced. Well designed, installed and maintained security lights bring comfort and well being to our lives providing us with a sense of security in our homes. However, much security lighting is installed without due consideration of its suitability for the task and its effect on neighbours and the environment. Domestic security lights should provide the minimum level of illumination necessary to light a property. Whilst you may be happy with a light that illuminates half the street your neighbours may not
uk_-_ile_-_domestic_security_lighting_2003_-_2_pg.pdf

ILE : Key domestic burglary crime statistics (at January 2007)


Home Office counting rules divide domestic burglary into two crime categories; burglary in a dwelling (Home Office code number 28) and aggravated burglary in a dwelling (Home Office code number 29). 3. Police determine whether the offence is burglary or aggravated burglary at the time the crime is recorded and usually before it is investigated. These categories can then be flagged by the police on a discretionary basis with the following additions: − attempted; − with loss; − without loss; − repeat victimisation; − distraction burglary.
uk_-_key_domestic_burglary_crime_statistics_-_jan_2007_-_40pg.pdf

OBE : Lighting and Crime: Summary


Crime prevention practitioners have always included lighting as part of their toolbox, and have advocated its use accordingly. However, over the last fifteen years there has emerged the view that street lighting does not have effects in reducing crime. Such a view has been attributed to the Home Office, with the result that many have taken it to be in some sense an official position. If left unchallenged, such a view would have the effect of excluding or limiting the role of street lighting in local crime and disorder prevention strategies required under the Crime and Disorder Act 1998. It was thus thought timely to consider the effect of street lighting on crime afresh. The Head of the Home Office Crime Prevention Agency, Chief Constable Richard Childs thus asked the writer to review the research evidence. The review was to be funded by the Lighting Industry Federation, but the writer, the Home Office and the Federation agreed on its independence, and that therefore publication of the review was not to be contingent on the conclusions reached. The review was undertaken in July-August 1998. The purpose of this note is to inform the reader of the general thrust of the review, and of the implications of the present state of knowledge. A copy of the full report is available from the ILE.
uk_-_lighting_and_crime_summary_critically_appraising_the_alleged_benefits_of_lighting_on_public_safety_-_4pg.pdf

Marchant : Failing To Measure Any Effect Of Increased Lighting On Crime


This paper shows that the reply by Profs Farrington and Welsh to my work “A demonstration that the claim that brighter lighting reduces crime is unfounded” still contains flaws and misunderstandings. A key element which is not accounted for is the spatial correlation of crime events in any one period of observation. This effect explains the high observed variability of the crime counts; much higher than is conceded in their reply to me; an order of magnitude greater than Poisson. The effect of ‘regression towards the mean’ is also one of their problems not properly dealt with. (The Protocol for a Campbell Collaboration systematic review is similarly flawed.) Any study using their methods will be subject to such errors. My work here will explain, in a relatively non-technical fashion, what the problems are. The problems uncovered are general, going beyond any specific evaluation, and can be readily seen with more extensive data from 124 areas.
uk_-_marchant_-_effect_of_lighting_on_crime_a_reply_to_profs_farrington_and_welsh_-_43_pg.pdf

Metropolitan University : Critically appraising the alleged benefits of lighting on public safety


A key issue for all science. Can research findings be plausibly explained by means other than that given by the original researcher? / Previous talk spoke of some of the potential artefacts that may be seriously afflicting lighting research…For example HORS251 / Strange ideas …. health care of old….
uk_-_paul_marchant_-_critically_appraising_the_alleged_benefits_of_lighting_on_public_safety_-_27pg.pdf

USA :

USA Congress : PREVENTING CRIME: WHAT WORKS, WHAT DOESN'T, WHAT'S PROMISING1


Lighting campaigns seek to enhance the ability of people to provide protection for each other. In 1979, the predecessor agency of NIJ, the National Institute of Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice, reported on a review of 60 lighting evaluations. The authors of this review concluded: « Is street lighting an effective approach in the reduction and deterrence of crime? The answer is inconclusive. The paucity of reliable and uniform data and the inadequacy of available evaluation studies preclude a definitive statement regarding the relationship between street lighting and crime. » (Tien, et. al. 1979, page 93, emphasis in the original) Almost twenty years later, we know little more about the effectiveness of lighting. In the 1980's, a borough in London upgraded all of its street lighting. Atkins, Husain and Storey (1991) compared reported crimes the year before the relighting to the year following for 39 sections of the borough. No control areas were used, so background trends in crime cannot be assessed. No systematic changes in crime were detected. Surveys of residents of one area found no changes in perceptions of security. A Scottish study of relighting in a Glasgow neighborhood and a small town near Glasgow found that there was a short term reduction in victimizations that varied from 32 percent to 68 percent, depending on how victimization was measured (respondent victimizations, victimization of respondents' children, victimization of other family members, victimization of friends, or car victimization). Reported crime dropped 14 percent. The evaluators compared a three-month period prior to relighting to a three-month period following (Ditton and Nair 1994). No control group was used and the results for the two neighborhoods were combined. Finally, we need to consider three separate evaluations, with similar designs, undertaken by Painter (1994). She examined lighting improvements on two separate street segments and a footpath, all located in « crime prone » areas within London. Pedestrians were interviewed before and after the lighting improvement. All interviews were conducted after dark and were completed within 6 weeks of the relighting. No interviews were conducted in control areas. Substantial reductions in robberies, auto crimes, and threats were reported in two sites (86 percent, 79 percent). These crimes were eliminated in the third site, but the number of crimes before relighting was small so this could have been the result of other factors.
uk_-_preventing_crime_what_works_-_4pg.pdf

USA Congress : USA BURGLARIES BY NIGHT AND DAY


Percent distribution of burglaries known to police in USA, by place and time of occurrence. ‘Res’ is residence (dwelling) and ‘NonRes’ is store, office etc. For residential burglaries, the time is unknown for between 16% and 19% of all reported burglaries in individual years, and for non-residential, 9% to 11%. Data are from Maguire and Pastore (2002, Table 3.163). Note that the total number of burglaries in the USA has fallen over the years shown.
usa_-_burglaries_by_night_and_day_-_1pg.pdf

IDA : Information Sheet #51 LIGHTING AND CRIME


Does outdoor nighttime lighting prevent crime? The answer is nobody knows. There have been studies in the United States and in Europe examining this issue, and they have come to no definite conclusions that can be applied to society as a whole. Some studies suggest that lighting a particular neighborhood or park reduces the local crime rate. These types of studies often suffer from poor controls, poor scientific methodology, and failure to include ling term follow-up. Other studies show no significant change in crime rates after the installation of lighting. If it were so easy to reduce crime with lighting, then we should have made considerable headway by now. Our cities have never been brighter, yet the crime rate is higher than ever. The connection between crime reduction and increased lighting is vague at best
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SELENE : Outdoor Lighting and Crime: Is There a Connection?


Many people who have not had occasion to investigate the matter tend to assume that where crime is a concern, “the more light, the better”! But the research that has been done to date has provided no reliable evidence that this so. A 1977 U.S. Department of Justice analysis of 60 street lighting projects found that “there is no statistically significant evidence that street lighting impacts the level of crime, especially if crime displacement is taken into account.” An even more comprehensive Justice Department report in 1997 stated, “We may speculate that lighting is effective in some places, ineffective in others, and counter productive in still other circumstances….Lighting has received considerable attention. Yet, evaluation designs are weak and the results are mixed. We can have very little confidence that improved lighting prevents crime….In the absence of better theories about when and where lighting can be effective, and rigorous evaluations of plausible lighting interventions, we cannot make any scientific assertions regarding the effectiveness of lighting. In short, the effectiveness of lighting is unknown.”
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securite_criminalite.txt · Dernière modification: 2014/06/23 22:11 par admin