Définir et mesurer
Les sources lumineuses
La Sécurité, criminalité
Définir et mesurer
Les sources lumineuses
La Sécurité, criminalité
Protocole, FICHES de terrain, guides d’identification, FICHES D’AIDE À L’OBSERVATION
Evaluation de l'impact de l'éclairage nocturne sur les insectes
If all mankind were to disappear, the world would regenerate back to the rich state of equilibrium that existed ten thousand years ago.
If insects were to vanish, the environment would collapse into chaos.
- Naturalist E. O. Wilson, Havard University
This page covers: •Essay: The tropical light within •Artificial night lighting and insects: Attraction of insects to streetlamps in a rural setting in Germany. •Effects on Artificial Night Lighting on Moths •Can You AstroNavigate As Well As A Dung Beetle??
Light pollution's impact on other species in the environment are found here.
Date: May 22, 2012
Source: University of Exeter
Street lighting is transforming communities of insects and other invertebrates, according to new research. The study shows for the first time that the balance of different species living together is being radically altered as a result of light pollution in our towns and cities. Believed to be increasing by six percent a year globally, artificial lighting is already known to affect individual organisms, but this is the first time that its impact on whole communities has been investigated.
Insect communities are permanently changed by the presence of street lighting, according to new research. The authors of the study found that predatory and scavenging insects such as ants and ground beetles were more common under streetlights at all times of day, suggesting that light pollution does not simply attract different types of animals at night.
“Insects provide crucial services to humans, such as pollination and decomposition to organic matter,” researcher Thomas Davies told Discovery News. “We are facing an insect biodiversity crisis.”
Shiny solar panels, cars and even Tarmac are decimating our insect population
June 2011: Light pollution is killing off Britain's insect populations, according to a new report published by wildlife conservation charity Buglife.
The report, the first to pull together all the evidence relating to all forms of light pollution and make policy and practical recommendations, says that it is clear that artificial lighting and shiny flat surfaces in the wrong place and at the wrong time significantly disrupt ecosystems, and could be contributing to current declines and extinctions of invertebrates. The charity is calling on local authorities and Government departments to take the lead in reducing the impact of light pollution.
Éclairage artificiel et insectes de nuit en Allemagne (Gerhard Eisenbeis)
Impact des éclairages artificiels sur les mites (Kenneth D. Frank)
Lumière parasite, lucioles, et insectes luisants (James E. Lloyd)
Responsable de stage: Mr Michel BONAVITACOLA Président de l’association LICORNESS Mai 2007
Stagiaire : Brice DESLANDRES Stage de L3 Géoingenierie de l’Environnement (Option eau)
Publié le 18 novembre 2010
Si les effets de la pollution lumineuse sur l’environnement naturel commence à peine à être connu, du moins au niveau du grand public, les travaux menés par les scientifiques depuis quelques décennies montrent que cet impact est d’une telle ampleur qu’il pourrait être responsable de la raréfaction voire la disparition de nombreuses populations et espèces animales.
En l’espace de 50 ans, l’homme a complètement bouleversé la variation du jour et de la nuit qui rythmait les vies animales et végétales. L’expansion incontrôlée et inadaptée des éclairages urbains depuis le XXe siècle est à l’origine de pollutions lumineuses venant troubler la nuit. La présente étude vise à mesurer les impacts de la lumière artificielle nocturne sur un groupe à fort enjeu : les papillons de nuit. S’inscrivant dans le premier projet français de Réserve internationale de Ciel étoilé, l’attraction de deux sources de lampe utilisées comme éclairage public sur la commune d’Aulon (Hautes-Pyrénées) a été évaluée. La démarche, le protocole et les résultats obtenus au cours de cette recherche sont développés.
During the last 50 years, Humans completely upset the day and night variation which gave rhythm to animal and vegetable lives. The uncontrolled and inadequate light expansion since the XXth century caused Light Pollutions, disturbing the night. The aim of this study is to mesure the nocturne artificial light impacts on a stake unit: moths. Involved in the first French project of the International Dark Sky Reserve, two light attraction sources used at street lighting in Aulon (Hautes-Pyrénées) have been tested. The approach, the protocol and the results obtained during this study are developed.
Pollutions lumineuses, Hétérocères, Réserve internationale de Ciel étoilé, Hautes-Pyrénées, France.
Scientific Reports | Article
Masatoshi Hori, Kazuki Shibuya, Mitsunari Sato & Yoshino Saito
We investigated the lethal effects of visible light on insects by using light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The toxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, particularly shortwave (i.e., UVB and UVC) light, on organisms are well known. However, the effects of irradiation with visible light remain unclear, although shorter wavelengths are known to be more lethal. Irradiation with visible light is not thought to cause mortality in complex animals including insects. Here, however, we found that irradiation with short-wavelength visible (blue) light killed eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults of Drosophila melanogaster. Blue light was also lethal to mosquitoes and flour beetles, but the effective wavelength at which mortality occurred differed among the insect species. Our findings suggest that highly toxic wavelengths of visible light are species-specific in insects, and that shorter wavelengths are not always more toxic. For some animals, such as insects, blue light is more harmful than UV light.
CALLUM J. MACGREGOR1,2,3,MICHAEL J. O. POCOCK2, RICHARD FOX3 and DARREN M. EVANS1
Article first published online: 13 DEC 2014
1. Moths (Lepidoptera) are the major nocturnal pollinators of flowers. However, their importance and contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been under-appreciated. Evidence was identified that moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in diverse ecosystems across the world.
2. Moth populations are known to be undergoing significant declines in several European countries. Among the potential drivers of this decline is increasing light pollution. The known and possible effects of artificial night lighting upon moths were reviewed, and suggest how artificial night lighting might in turn affect the provision of pollination by moths. The need for studies of the effects of artificial night lighting upon whole communities of moths was highlighted.
3. An ecological network approach is one valuable method to consider the effects of artificial night lighting upon the provision of pollination by moths, as it provides useful insights into ecosystem functioning and stability, and may help elucidate the indirect effects of artificial light upon communities of moths and the plants they pollinate.
4. It was concluded that nocturnal pollination is an ecosystem process that may potentially be disrupted by increasing light pollution, although the nature of this disruption remains to be tested.